Between 1896 and 1906, a total of seven expeditions transported findings from Ephesus to Vienna. In the early 20th century, these findings were exhibited in various places, including Belvedere Palace and the antique collection of the Kunsthistorisches Museum. In 1911, a provisional exhibition in the Theseus Temple had to be discontinued because of damage to the exhibits. A selection of the items was once again exhibited in the Temple between 1934 and 1944. A number of Ephesean sculptures were displayed in the Neue Burg's colonnade from 1947 until 1978, when the entire collection finally received a permanent home in the newly founded Ephesos Museum.
The museum possesses remnants from the late-classical Altar of Artemis, including a sculpture of an Amazon. Staircases lead from the entrance hall to a large chamber containing the frieze from the Parthian Monument of Ephesus. Other major exhibits include a model of ancient Ephesus on a scale of 1:500 and numerous sculptures, including a bronze statue of an athlete. Also in the museum are architectural and sculptural cult relics from the Sanctuary of the Great Gods, on the Greek island of Samothrace.
Archaeological digs, with Austrian involvement, continue in Ephesus to this day. The scientific evaluation of the museum's stock is carried out in cooperation with the University of Vienna, the Austrian Academy of Sciences, and the Austrian Archaeological Institute.